Argentine bread flours

I love bread. Before moving to Argentina I had been experimenting with baking my own bread. I made Bittman’s no-knead bread, Reinhart’s pain a l’ancienne, bagels, various forms of sandwich loaves. I became a fan of King Arthur Flour, acquired a baking stone, and learned how to create good steam conditions in my high-end convection oven to make a crisp crackly crust. So what if I could go to the farmer’s market and get a delicious loaf of Acme Bread in the time it would take me to measure out the flour? It was rewarding to bake my own bread, and boy did it taste good.

Pain a l’ancienne, US version

Then I moved to Argentina. And I discovered the travesty that passes for bread here. The national sandwich, the sandwich de miga, is made of huge sheets of Wonder Bread with the crusts sliced off. The ubiquitous panaderías (bakeries) sell pale dinner rolls with soft crusts. It’s as if the bakers spritz SPF80 on all their breads before baking — I couldn’t find a single loaf with a nice tan. There is no bread culture here.

It’s okay, I thought. I know how to make my own bread!  Unfortunately, that is where I discovered how little I actually know about the underlying science of breadmaking. Up until now, I had been using formulas without really understanding what was happening. Now, in a land of inconsistent ingredients and kitchen appliances, I’m having to really understand what makes bread work, not just follow prescribed steps, because the flour I have or the temperature of my oven or the humidity of the air varies a lot from day to day.

Let’s start with flour. There are two main types of flour available: harina de trigo tipo 000 and tipo 0000. The 000 is supposedly for use with bread, while the 0000 is more similar to all-purpose flour or perhaps cake flour (according these threads on The Fresh Loaf). I remember to get 000 rather than 0000 because pan (bread) has 3 letters. King Arthur bread flour, which is what I used in the US, advertises a consistent 12.7% protein. I’ve read that artisan breads do best with around 11-12% protein content.

Unfortunately, all the bread flour I can find here has protein content in the 9-10% range. Here’s what I’ve found in the grocery store brands:

Brand Protein content
Pureza 0000 9%
Favorita 000 9%
Favorita 0000 9%
Favorita Pizza y Pan 9%
Canuelas 000 9%
Carrefour 000 9%
Caserita 0000 9.6%
Caserita 000 9.6%
Morixe 000 10%
Dia 000 10%
Dia 0000 10%
Pureza Integral (whole wheat) 10.6%
Casa China harina integral (whole wheat) 27%

As you can see from the table, the protein content does not seem to bear any relation to whether it’s type 000 or 0000. OK, so I’ll stick with the 000 for now because that’s what the Internet says to do.

My first experiments with high-hydration doughs in Buenos Aires led to sticky messes which were impossible to knead. The same recipe which worked so well back in the US made such a wet dough that instead of rising upward during proofing, it just oozed outward. I had to pour it into the oven. Instead of lovely baguettes, I ended up with flatbread.

Pain a l’ancienne, BsAs version


How could that be?  One factor, I discovered, is that the protein level in flour influences its water absorption. The higher the protein, the more water it absorbs. Aha! The lower-protein flour I have here must require less water!


Will this discovery result in better bread?  Stay tuned to find out.

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7 thoughts on “Argentine bread flours

  1. Pingback: A tale of two breads | Vegan in BsAs

  2. Jon

    Hey there — also a US expat trying to make some good bread here in BA and struggling with the flour choices. Have you tried adding pure gluten (can buy in diateticas or barrio chino) to up the protein content? I’m about to embark on that experiment, will let you know how it goes. Anyway email me if you want to compare bread notes some time…

    1. tlau Post author

      Hi Jon and welcome! I’m had some success modifying local flour with pure gluten (labeled as “gluten puro” or “100% gluten”). Stay away from the “harina glutinada”, it’s not as consistent. I wrote about higher-gluten breads later on this blog.

      My most recent successes (which I should write up and post, thanks for the reminder) have been using “harina de trigo 0000″ (all-purpose flour) with a strongly-reduced hydration level. I’ve managed to make a great Bittman/Lahey no-knead bread loaf with 0000 flour and only 60% hydration. Keep at it!

  3. bread and honey

    En la Argentina existe una infinidad de panes, facturas, madialunas, etc, ya que la población es una suma de nativos, criollos, europeos (sobre todo italianos y españoles). Y cada nueva oleada de inmigración trajo su estilo – No podemos decir exactamente que no hay “bread culture”… En las provincias se las ingeniaron para hacer tortitas de grasa y harinas, dulces o saladas, con queso o semillas. Y el sandwich de miga no es el sandwich nacional sino el sandwich gourmet. Para sandwichs populares se usaba el pan “flauta” with a nice tan.

  4. deb

    Great article!
    Any idea where to find this flour in the US? If not, do you find the extra gluten on regular grocery stores?

  5. Lucy

    Not really sure where you were living in Argentina that there was “no bread culture,” but you are definitely not looking hard enough. There is a massive European influence in Argentina, and we eat more bread than perhaps any other south american nation because of our Italian influence. If you go to the northern provinces, you will find many breads from our indigenous people. I think you made a pretty general statement that was unfounded. Good luck finding more options; they are absolutely out there.

  6. Day Clicker

    I agree with Lucy. Bread is a HUGE DEAL here. On every corner there is a panderia. If you are looking for more variety try Boulangerie Cocu, Malvón, Le Blé……to name a few. These places are wonderful and I hope you enjoy them.


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